Implantable technology for pain management


      Neuropathic pain is a well-recognized chronic pain condition. This can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life. Neuromodulation is defined by the International Neuromodulation Society as ‘the therapeutic alteration of activity in the central or peripheral nervous system either electrically or pharmacologically’. Electrical stimulation can be performed at the motor cortex, deep brain, spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion, peripheral nerve and peripheral nerve field. Pharmacological modulation is achieved by directly infusing drugs to the central nervous system. Although neuromodulation has become increasing popular, it is still currently believed to be underused in treating neuropathic pain. This modality has provided us with a non-pharmacological approach to manage patients with neuropathic pain. Patients should have been assessed by a multidisciplinary team before undergoing neuromodulation. This review highlights the present and future management of patients with chronic intractable pain using neuromodulation.


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