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Opioids in pain medicine

      Abstract

      Opioids represent one of the most important classes of analgesic medication and are effective in acute and cancer pain management. Concerns exist regarding their utility in chronic non-cancer pain due to consequences of long-term use and lack of efficacy. Opioids bind to G protein-coupled receptors leading to a variety of physiological effects, including analgesia. Individual drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, actions across different physiological systems, side-effect profiles, routes of administration and patient factors that impact on drug efficacy, all need to be considered when choosing the appropriate opioid and preparation for individual patients.

      Keywords

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